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Volapük Vifik: Lärnod Lulid

"It's all (or mainly) in the past..."

Just in the same way as part five follows the last part of our course in Volapük, so does one hour, one day, one week, one month, one yearsucceed the previous one. As time passes, there is no doubt whatever that our present is becoming less and less, while our past is gradually becoming more and more, and still more.

logob = I see (now)
elogob = I've seen, or I saw (a moment ago/yesterday/last week/lastmonth/last year)

In Volapük, events are considered either to be still happening,or else to have already happened within a longer or shorter time span.  In order to fully appreciate all this, ideally we get into our special  'time capsule' and become 'part of the action.' In fact, the word 'tense' is how we describe the 'time factor' in words called VERBS (denoting status, being, becoming or action).

In the example given above, elogob (I've seen/I saw) impinges much more on the present. For this reason, it is used for chatting about every-day happenings: it is essentially the PAST connected with the PRESENT for us.

However, there is another kind of PAST which is more remote: if we say"I saw him last year", the same excitement seems to have been lost somewhat; perhaps it's another way of saying "I used to see him",or even "I had seen him". In fact, it is the past becoming evermore and more remote, even becoming in our judgment historical. Look at these two examples:

Adelo logob oli = To-day I see you (now);
Klu, elogob oli = so, I've seen you! (just finished)

Ädelo älogob oli = Yesterday I saw you (at that time);
Klu, ilogob oli = I'd seen you! (over and done with)

Do you see now the first couple refer to the 'here and now' and the 'immediate past', whereas the second couple concern the more distant past?

We therefore see that the PRESENT TENSE has no initial vowel to signal the here and now; this is reserved in modern Volapük for words which signify the idea of time in themselves, such as del = day in the examples.  As we know already, the PRESENT PERFECT is indicated by the initial vowel E- and now we learn that the vowel Ä- indicates the PAST DEFINITE and the vowel I- takes us still further back into the past!

Again, just to recap, if the ACTOR (I/we; you, he/she; one; it/they) is doing something to the VICTIM (animate/inanimate beings or things); this is termed ACTIVE, whereas if we prefer to say "you are seen (by me)", then it is no longer active, but PASSIVE! We are familiar with the Passive in Volapük already - now just see how all the rest follows on so regularly:

Palogol (fa ob) = you are seen (by me);
Pelogol (fa ob) = you've been seen (by me);
Pälogol (fa ob) = you were seen (by me);
Pilogol (fa ob) = you had been seen (by me)

Thus does the PRESENT merge into the IMMEDIATE PAST, then into the DEFINITE PAST, and finally into the COMPLETE PAST.   How time flies!

Welcome to the fifth part of our rapid, inter-active course in Volapük Vifik in which we start, as usual, with some more words for you to practise out loud:

bäldik = old
bäldot = age (= number of years) 
bel = a mountain 
benö! = fine! 
bevü = between 
boso = somewhat 
bukiselidöp = a bookshop 
dalabön = to own, to possess 
das (conjunction) = that 
demü = on account of 
dilekanef = management 
domio = (to) home 
dönulogö! = au revoir! 
düp = an hour 
düpalaf = half-an-hour 
fiam = a firm 
fino = at last 
foldeg = forty 
foldil = a quarter 
fümo = for sure 
glid = a greeting 
glidön = to greet 
golön = to go 
jenöfo = in fact 
jinön = to appear, to seem 
juitön = to enjoy 
kif ?/kim? = who? (masc. and fem.) 
kikodo? = why? 
kipladio? = where to? whither? 
klülön = to be clear 
kodü = because of 
kolkömön = to meet 
kotenükön = to satisfy, make happy 
laidareman = a regular buyer 
läbik = lucky, happy 
länädio = (into) the country (side) 
liegikan = a rich person 


löfäb = a loved one 
lomio = homewards 
lut = air 
mated = a marriage 
matikön = to get married 
matirajanan (hi/ji) = a fiancé(e) 
memön = to remember 
mon = cash, money 
mödikna = many times 
mödo = a great deal, a lot 
mu = extremely 
neai = never 
no latikolöd = don't be late! 
no nog = not yet 
patik = special 
pos = after (=time) 
poso = afterwards 
pöfikan = a poor person 
primön = to begin, to start 
prüdö! = take care! 
pul (hi/ji) = a youngster, a youth 
sevön = to know 
spelön = to hope 
spidön = to hurry 
spikot = a conversation 
sülö! = good heavens! 
suvo = often 
takädön = to relax 
tävön = to travel 
te = only 
tedabüsid = (general) business 
tikön = to think 
tü = at, on (= time) 
us = there 
(in) valem = (in) general 
ye = however 
yel = a year 


DAVID:          Glidis, o Katlin!
KATLIN:        Glidis ole, o David! Kipladio golol-li?
DAVID:          Golob domio ela Samül - ed ol-li?
KATLIN:        Ün timül at, golob lomio; poso spelob ad visitön ziomi oba.
DAVID:          Lio panemom-li?
KATLIN:        Panemom Karl e binom liegikan.
DAVID:          Binom-li bäldik? Klülos, das labom moni mödik.
KATLIN:        Fümo no binom pöfikan; ye vobom ai: labom domi nilü zif, e tävom suvo länädio ad juitön belaluti us.
DAVID:          Lifayelis liomödotik labom-li?
KATLIN:        Tikob, das labom bäldoti yelas foldeg.
DAVID:          Binom-li matan?
KATLIN:        No nog, bi neai binom libü tedabüsid; ab fino labom jifleni go patiki - binons anu matirajanans!
DAVID:          O löfäbs läbik! Benö! Düp kinid binos-li?
KATLIN:        Binos düpalaf pos lul. Kikodo?
DAVID:          Sülö! Mutob spidön, bi vilob kolkömön eli Samül tü foldil bü düp mälid.
KATLIN:        Dönulogö! No latikolöd! Prüdö!

1. Translate the above dialogue into English.

2. Answer the following questions in Volapük:

  1. Kim glidom-li jieli Katlin?
  2. Kipladio golof-li anu?
  3. Kipladio spelof-li ad golön poso? (ziom OKA = her (own) uncle)
  4. Lio panemof-li jiflen ela Katlin?
  5. Kim binom-li el Karl?
  6. Düp kinid binos-li?
  7. Kikodo el David mutom-li spidön?
  8. E hiflen ela David, kim binom-li?

3. Describe KARL in twenty words in Volapük.

4. In Volapük this is how we count from 20 to 30:

Teldeg; teldegbal; teldegtel; teldegkil; teldegfol; teldeglul; teldegmäl; 
  20       21         22         23         24         25         26
teldegvel; teldegjöl; teldegzül; kildeg. 
   27         28         29        30 

And still further and further from forty to ninety:-

foldeg; luldeg; mäldeg; veldeg; jöldeg; züldeg
  40      50      60      70      80      90 

Write in Volapük: 32, 45, 57, 68, 71, 84, 99


David: Glidis dönu! Ya sevol obi: panemob David e binob balan flenas ela Samül. Ädelo ägolob domio oma, ven ekolkömob jieli Katlin; omemol sio, das binof flen jiela Janin, sör ela Samül.  Benö! Bi äbinos te düp lulid soara, eprimobs ad spikön ode dö balan röletanas ofa. Jinos, das el Karl ya labom moni mödik, ed etuvob lifi omik mu nitediki!  Jenöfo, tü düpalaf pos lul emutob spidön!

Katlin: Glidis dönu! I sevol obi ya!  Binob Katlin, balan flenas ela Janin.

Ädelo ekolkömob eli David, kel ägolom domio flenaomik, ed eprimobs ad bespikön dinis in valem. Poso, ye, emäniotob, das spelob ad visitön hikösti liegik oba, hieli Karl,ed el David ävilom sevön bosi plu tefü om. Jenöfo, äspikobs ode dü düpalaf lölik. Sekü atos, el David ämutom spidön ad no latikön!

Karl: Glidis! Nem oba binon Karl; binob blod yunik de fat ela Katlin, e lödob in zif gretik nilo, kö dalabob domi smalik. Binob büsidan, e kodü at, vobob mödo, bi vilob ai kotenüköni laidaremanis, i dilekanefi fiama: labob bäldoti yelas foldegkil.  Mödikna tävob ko matirajanan oba länädio ad juitön belaluti us.

Maxin: Glidis! Panemob Maxin. Binob jiflen patik hiela Karl  -  jenöfo binob matirajanan oma!  Labob lifayelis kildegjöl e vobob ün timül at as yufan in bukiselidöp, bi enitedälob ai demü buks valasotik!   Karl ed ob, spelobs ad matikön ünü yels tel.  El Karl neai binom libü tedabüsid, ab suvo tävobs länädio ad juitön luti gudik us, e ad takädön boso in top jönik at. Dalabom domi in zif, e pos mated obas, desinobs ad lödön us.